The Book of Enoch and the Canonicity of Scripture

This paper will argue to explain the reasons the Book of Enoch was not included in the Canonization of the Bible.

Outline

E-Nugger:

A History.

I. Introduction

During the explosion of information sharing in the last two decades, a very intriguing extra-Biblical book has become more and more the subject of interest among open-minded Christians on various platforms.  Although some of the media platforms would be considered “conspiratorial” or “fringe,”  increasingly we have seen accepted Biblical scholars like Michael Heiser come to the fore as advocates to those with listening ears to pay much closer attention to this oft-neglected work.  This has caused many to question, “why has this book been cut out of the Canon of Scripture?” and the next question which sounds even more intriguing is “was there some kind of blacklisting or media blackout on the Book of Enoch?  The fact that there was a debate as to whether the Bible Canon should include the Books of Moses or the Book of Enoch dismisses the idea that this was some fringe Gnostic text.  The reasons stated by most scholars seem to indicate a simple question of accuracy in a few minor instances but these same logical conclusions could be applied to some other texts in the accepted Canon.

Thus, in this paper we will explore some of the multi-layered aspects and possibilities contained within the Book of Enoch’s exclusion from the Biblical Canon.  We will endeavor to understand the purposes of the various locations in the Bible where the Canon was quoting the Book of Enoch (such as Jesus apparently using it over 40 times in the Gospels) and the mysterious allusion in the Book of Jude.  Then we will take a look at the age of the Book of Enoch in relation to these quotations.   We will see some of the arguments for including the Book of Enoch as well as excluding it, and the possibility of contradiction of the other texts in the canon.  We will learn of course some of the very astounding details in the Book which are also referred to in almost every religion regarding the existence of giants, the arrival of the Messiah, hierarchies of angels as well as the history of the fallen angels and the introduction to humanity of various technologies.  We will attempt to shed light on the understanding of the Book of Enoch with regards to more recent technological developments and breakthroughs of science in the realms of genetics and hybridisation of species.  We will even take a quick glance at recent paranormal phenomena and present some evidence for the rise of the UFO and so-called extra terrestrial abduction cases first showing up in Genesis 6 and elsewhere and then being mirrored in the Book of Enoch.

A. … What is the evidence that the Book of Enoch should be quoted in the canon of the bible?

The Bible Canon gives us two instances where Enoch is referenced.  The first is in Genesis and the second in Jude.  We are simply told that Enoch walked with God and was not for God took him.   The second occurs in Jude where it references Enoch being the seventh from Adam and contains a brief prophecy about the Lord coming with “thousands of his holy ones.”    That’s it.   That’s all the Canon gives us.  As with many of the ancient feasts and festivals, the early Jewish scholars obviously expected us to already be aware of the existence of Enoch and seem to have merely included him as a reference or reminder. Could this mean Enoch belonged to some sort of separate mystical category that ran parallel to the main thrust of the Old Testament and New Testament Prophets, Records of Israel, Gospels and Letters?  If so, why are we given no explanation for these references or even a “As for the other acts of so-and-so, are they not written in the Book of Jasher?” —or some clue as to where to learn more about Enoch?  These are all very interesting questions which cause one to ponder whether there should not at least have been some sort of explanation as to who Enoch was in the Canon, which does contain a clue or hint to the strange way in which even the number of his years were 365, as there are 365 days in a year.  The time paradoxes in the Book of Revelation which are so fun to conjecture about are also seen in the Book of Enoch, although they are almost more confusing in this book than the strangest sections of Daniel, Ezekiel or John’s Revelation.  The Bible Canon seems to have no problem with mystical mysteries in these books but it does not accept the Book of Enoch or even more than a small mention of him.  For this reason it is a great benefit to humanity and Christendom that we have a renewed interest in the Book so that we may at least begin to understand the outline of what happened during the important period of the fallen angels and beyond.

B. … What are the arguments that it should not be?

Without dwelling unnecessarily long on the arguments against inclusion of the Book of Enoch, we may simply note here that the main conclusion stated by the people who took long amounts of time to pick out every single detail they felt disagreed with the Canon was that one should completely ignore this and any other book that is not among the 66 books of Scriptures, misquoting such scriptures as “pay no heed to genealogies as they will give heed to more arguing” etc.   These people are in direct conflict with the Canon itself which recommends us to read certain books outside of the Canon and at the very least expects us to have an understanding of Jewish traditions and feast dates, etc.  Perhaps the people arguing against the Book of Enoch being included in the Canon are really interested in us not having much if any understanding of there being relevant or important information outside of the Canon at all.  This is the overall sentiment that is present in those who make a very strong case using quotations from the book that don’t jive with their fixed doctrine of Scripture.  All in all it becomes very clear that there are far more reasons that the Book of Enoch should be present at least in our knowledge of the Canon at the very least if not directly in the Canon itself, than the arguments pushing for total exclusion and removal of the Book from our minds or interpretation of Scripture.

II. Overview of the  Evidence for and against(2 pages)

A. … Book of enoch quoted in Jude

The book of Jude states that the Lord will come with his 10 thousand saints in a verse that looks like it fits very closely with the Battle of Armageddon.

a. … Age of Jude Earliest Manuscript

The earliest Manuscript of Jude is known to be at about the 3rd or 4th century. ( Aland and Aland, The Text of the New Testament (2nd ed.), 100) 

b. …Age of Book of Enoch/ Earliest Manuscript

The earliest section of the Book of Enoch, namely the section dealing with the Watchers is known to be written around 300 BC

( Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P–Sh page 411, ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 (2004))

B. …  Authorship of Jude possibly plagiarised or misattributed?

Although there may be some argument that Jude was plagiarised or copied from the Letters of Peter, this is a far stretch from saying it was edited to confuse people about the Book of Enoch.

III. Point one (3 pages) Book of Enoch is older than the oldest known manuscript of the book of Jude

A. The Book of Enoch is over 3000 years. old

One of the main arguments we have for including the Book of Enoch is the way it dovetails with the rest of Scripture and is known to have originated at least 3,000 years ago.  This eradicates the possibility of it having been tampered to suit the rest of the Bible, even up until the Gospels.  Formerly there were those who thought it must be fake because of the accuracy with which Enoch described all the events of the future up until the return of the Messiah.  Surely a prophecy this important would not have been left out of the Canon unless it had been faked?   However the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls changed all of this.  We now have manuscripts that prove the Book of Enoch was written well before the New Testament and this makes it even more crucial to understand the rest of the Bible properly.

B. Book of  Jude is Dated between AD 60 and d140

It’s clear that the timing of the writing of the Book of Jude in relation to the earliest manuscripts of the Book of Enoch set it at a date that cause their timelines to check out logically.

IV. Point two (3 pages) The Book of Jude directly quotes. The Book of Enoch

A. Possible other explanations for the direct quotation?

Various arguments for the Book of Jude being literally inspired by the Holy Spirit without any sort of background reference to what he was talking about make it even more clear that there is a frame of mind which would like to remove anything unexplainable in the Bible from connecting to outside sources and just magically call it “the Holy Spirit.”  The Book of Enoch or at least the cosmology and events brought forth in the work were well known by the writers of those days and there is no need to mystically interpret everything.

B. Reasons the early church fathers may have had for keeping the Book of Enoch out of  the Bible.

Although there was an overall consensus to keep the Book of Enoch out of the Canon which may have stood similarly to why the did not include the Book of Jasher or other works, there was no sense of the cult-like tendency many Christians have today to proudly maintain an ignorannce towards everything that isn’t straight from the Bible.  We now see a return to common sense thinking with regards to all of the Scriptures and thanks to the fast paced sharing of information and Hebrew scriptures’ original meanings, etc, there is a return to individualised research into all the Scriptures.  In other words, it is hard to have a cult now as long as you have a phone with internet access.  Although the original church fathers decided to exclude the Book of Enoch from the Canon, there was no consensus that people should not be reading it to understand the overall framework of what was taking place with regards to the Fallen Angels and other themes.

V. Point three (3 pages) Does the Book of Enoch support other scriptures in the bible or contradict them?

A.   They spoke about giants around the time of Noah which supports the Book of Enoch

One of the most interesting and little known facts about the Book of Enoch is that Jesus Himself actually alluded to various events that are outlined there, such as the “Days of Noah” in Matthew 24.  What was Jesus talking about when He spoke about “As in the Days of Noah, so shall it be when the Son of Man returns?”  A lot of the language He used can be found all throughout the Book of Enoch, such as the offspring of the Watcher angels and the evil and wickedness that was taking place during the times of Noah.  He says that “men were eating and drinking in those days” and one very little spoken of detail is that this was a time when the giants were eating and drinking the flesh and blood of mankind.   Why does it say that if those days are not cut short that no flesh will be left alive?  Obviously the events that took place during the days of Noah were so violent and catastrophic that God had to send a flood to restart the entire race lest everything be corrupted.  None of this makes any sense unless you understand that in those days the fallen angels had created a situation through their perversion of not only the human race but even the plant and animal kingdom such that the very genetic fidelity of all creation would be destroyed if it were to continue.  Now we find ourselves in a similar situation where the tampering of genetics through such big companies like Monsanto present the possible chaos and confusion of life as we know it.  While modern movies such as the Marvel series beautify the idea of mutations from the norm and romanticise the ideas that Hitler himself also shared of creating a Superman (which he took from the ancient religions and myths dabbling in various occult knowledge) the Bible distinctly warns against the idea of playing God and the Book of Enoch goes even deeper  and outlines the actual circumstances and world conditions that were taking place.   Often Christians get the idea that there was just an explosion of sinful behaviour going on before the Flood and that this is what will take place during the End Times.   This is true to a certain extent but when you practically look at the logical conclusion God must have come to that all flesh would literally cease to be exist in its pure form to the extent there had to be a worldwide flood and salvation of every pure seedling of every animal and that only Noah alone was found to have a pure genetic seed line, as the Book of Genesis states, then things begin to make  a lot more sense.  Now thanks to the research of a new generation of historians, researchers and writers such as Steve Quayle, Tom Horn and Timothy Alberino, working in concert with a new wave of Christian media daily working on uncovering a lot of these hidden secrets in history and in the Bible at SkyWatch News, an entirely new generation of Christians are coming to know God and show an interest in learning about the truths in God’s Word.  Much of what they do takes from the Book of Enoch not necessarily as Canon, but as a map towards understanding the past and even what is happening in our society currently to fulfil Bible Prophecy.

B. Was there a Nephilim race that survived after the flood?

The Early Church Fathers were of varying opinion regarding the Book of Enoch, however they usually had an overall consensus that the information within the Book is useful and so they quoted often from it.  With this in mind, we should pay much closer attention today to the Book of Enoch as it is a useful guidepost to understanding what could be taking place before our very eyes with regards to the supernatural phenomena that are staggering psychologists and scientists alike.  Although we need not spend all our time developing another Bible which includes the Book of Enoch like the Ethiopian Church does and begin to fight for the cause of a church which reads Enoch as Scripture, sings hymns containing the stories of the Watchers, etc., we may inherit some pointers as to how to deal with real life problems facing the world today and in the near future.  How does one deal with the increasing alien abduction phenomena and burgeoning ufo sightings occurring worldwide?  Indeed there are numerous accounts of angels and women producing offspring detailed in the Book of Enoch and other books, and these provide a good source of material which can help us face any such overwhelming supernatural scenario.  Some may scoff at this but the truth is by some estimations that the number of people experiencing the alien abduction phenomena ranges in the tens of millions of cases all with very similar characteristics.  Christians who include the Book of Enoch in their ministries and counselling to victims of the phenomena are more equipped to face paranormal circumstances such as these and explain the background and history outlined there, as the types of sexual and deviant practices these unfortunate people undergo mirror many of those which the ancient Nephilim engaged in.  People like L.A. Marzulli and Jim Wilhelmsen who may be considered “Fringe Christians” have helped pioneer this vastly unexplored (by Christians) realms of research, and although modern academea has yet to fully acknowledge these brave men as well as countless others involved in the field, they are starting to.  There are bridges to that the academic realms like Michael Heiser who do substantial research and interviews regarding the significance of the Book of Enoch and how it connects to these more prevalent issues facing the world today.   Michael Heiser is very good at taking an Early Church Father stance of at least acknowledging the Book of Enoch and trying to address some topics which hardly a main stream academic will cover, such as the acknowledgement of UFO’s.  In the same way, although he does not consider the Book of Enoch to be Canonical Scripture he does at least put forth a very good argument regarding the need to include it as an element in our worldview in modern times.  He also demonstrates a wide array of knowledge with regards to the Church Father’s attitudes towards the Book of Enoch and balances them quite fairly, coming to the conclusion that we should most definitely include the Book in all our calculations of measuring Scripture just as the Early Church Fathers also did.

VI. Conclusion (1 page)

A. There is evidence that the Book of Enoch should have been included in the bible

After carefully both reading the Book of Enoch itself and hearing numerous talks and balanced opinions on the entire work, it is obvious that at the very least The Book of Enoch should be taught alongside the Bible if not included in some kind of Canon of some measure, as the argument for completely excluding it from modern Bible study simply does not make sense.  The Early Church Fathers such as Origen and others respectfully quoted from the Book of Enoch and incorporated various themes into their writings which made it clear that in ancient Church times there was a consensus that the histories of the Fallen Angels and the Nephilim were a part of the big picture of the Faith.

B. The Book of Enoch was not included in the bible because the Apostles did not consider it scripture.

Although many of the Apostles and Church Fathers did not consider the Book of Enoch Scripture, nowhere was there an occurrence where any of these considered a believer in the Book of Enoch to be a heretic.   There is nothing in the Book to denote heresy against the important key foundational doctrines of Salvation or any other point.  The main argument against including the Book into Canon was simply that there were unclear origins of the book and some sections could not be verified as far as their overall fidelity to the extent that the other Books in the Canon were.   The Bible Canon itself teaches to judge a tree by its fruits, and thus far the fruit of the believers studying the Book of Enoch as a part of their cosmological worldview is very good.

Bibliography

Anderson, C. D. (2003). Jude’s use of the pseudepigraphal book of 1 enoch.Dialogue : A Journal of Mormon Thought, 36(2), 47-64,244. Retrieved from    http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/docview/905189231?accountid=12085

Ben-Dov, J. (2013). 1 enoch 2: A commentary on the book of 1 enoch chapters 37-82. by george W.E. nickelsburg and james C. VanderKam. hermeneia. minneapolis: Fortress press, 2012. hardcover.        pp. xxx + 618. US$ 82.00. ISBN 978-0-8006-9664-1. Dead Sea Discoveries, 20(1), 143-148.  doi:10.1163/15685179-12341248

Barker, Margaret. 2000. The book of enoch and cosmic sin. The Ecologist 30 (1): 30.

Bertalotto, P. (2010). The enochic son of man, psalm 45, and the book of the watchers. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 19(3), 195-216. doi:10.1177/0951820710364836

Hubbard, Moyer. 2003. 1 enoch 1: A commentary on the book of 1 enoch chapters 1-36; 81-108.                           

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Knibb, Michael. 2002. interpreting the book of enoch: Reflections on a recently published  commentary. Journal for the Study of Judaism 33 (4): 437-50.

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Moore, N. J. 2013. Is enoch also among the prophets? the impact of jude’s citation of 1 enoch on the reception of both texts in the early church. The Journal of Theological Studies 64 (2): 498-

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Orlov, A. (2007;2005;). the heir of righteousness and the king of righteousness: The priestly  noachic polemics in 2 enoch and the epistle to the hebrews. The Journal of Theological Studies, 58(1), 45-65. doi:10.1093/jts/flj124

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Comment (4)

  1. Firstly let me remind you that Peter quoted indirectly from 1 Enoch when he discussed the angels (watchers) who sinned and are kept in chains of darkness in Tartarus. This is the only place in canon whwerin Tartarus is mentioned but Enoch gives good info about it. Next, having read Enoch many times along with other extra canonical books mentioned in canon, like Yashar & Yovheliym (Jasher & Jubilees) I can attest to the fact that Genesis only gives summary details of many topics and events, but they’re greatly expanded upon in those aforementioned books. I have a bible, from cepher.net in the US or cepher.ca in Canada, called the et cepher. “ET” is the English pronounciation of the first and last letters of the Hebrew alef -beit (alpha bet(a) in Greek / Engllish), which are alef and tav. Why is this important? Altho’ I don’t fully agree with the narrator’s insistence on Greek alpha omega this video helps to understand https://youtu.be/_0GsgXlxAKo.
    For more info I used this link https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=jesus+and+the+alef+tav
    Now in my et cepher i.e. alef tav cepher there’s somethings unique. First in the original Hebrew scriptures the “et” is included in many verses in the OT and NT both. To expand upon that, in that scriptures, Rev. 1:8-10, we have the Father, YHVH, speaking to John saying, “I AM the Aleph and the Tav, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” in verse 8. Then, in verse 10. John says he was in the Ruach YHVH (Spirit of YHVH aka Holy Spirit) on YHVH’s day, when he heard a voice behind him say, “I AM the Aleph and the Tav, the first and the last, the beginning and the end, AND the FIRSTBORN FROM THE DEAD, fear not” – when he turns around he sees it’s Yeshua speaking to him. Thus in the space of 3 verses both the Father and the Son tell him and us, “I AM the Aleph and the Tav…”. That means “et” i.e. the aleph tav, was included in the original Hebrew scriptures as the divine autograph, i.e as if the Father and Son are signing off on the authenticity of the scriptures. A second reason I have this cepher (bible, compilation of books) is that it contains 87 books not 66 – and the intro explains at one time 81 of the 87 were in canon, not necessarily all at the same time.
    I have been amazed at the content of books like 4 Ezra (in the apocrypha as 2 Esdras), and 2 Baruch, as well as Judith, Bel and the Dragon, and others. In fact in 4 Ezra, YHVH is speaking to Ezra concerning the disobedient / reblellious people who were called to be His, and Yeshua quotes it in Matthew 23.
    Sorry for the length of this Mike et al, but I wanted to inform people there’s many reasons to read books other than the 66.

    1. Brother thank you for taking time to write this comment, I’ll have to make a whole video replying to it! Are you able to see my reply here on my new site? Just checking! Blessings and let’s talk soon.

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